Anorexia (deriving from the Greek "α(ν)-" (a(n)-, a prefix that denotes absence) + "όρεξη (orexe) = appetite) is the decreased sensation of appetite. While the term in non-scientific publications is often used interchangeably with anorexia nervosa, many possible causes exist for a decreased appetite, some of which may be harmless, while others indicate a serious clinical condition, or pose a significant risk.
- Satiation following the consumption of food. This is normal and is called postprandial anorexia.
- Acute Radiation Syndrome.
- Anorexia nervosa.
- acute appendicitis where it accompanies the presenting symptom of abdominal pain, often with vomiting.
- Chronic renal failure.
- Congestive heart failure, perhaps due to congestion of the liver with venous blood.
- Crohn's Disease.
- Severe Depression.
- Sickness behavior
- Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome.
- Ulcerative Colitis.
- Amphetamine (Adderall), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine & Dextrostat).
- Antidepressants can have anorexia as a side effect.
- Dextromethylphenidate (Focalin).
- Abrupt cessation of appetite-increasing drugs, such as cannabis.
- Methamphetamine (Desoxyn) (treatment of ADD & ADHD and narcolepsy).
- Methylphenidate (Ritalin & Concerta).
- Chemicals that are members of the phenethylamine group. (Individuals with anorexia nervosa may seek them to suppress appetite).
- Altitude when it can also accompany sickness.
- Preoperative anorexia drugs may be prescribed as a prophylactic to ensure no food will back up into the esophagus which might risk pulmonary aspiration.
- Significant emotional pain caused by an event (rather than a mental illness) can cause an individual to temporarily lose all interest in eating.
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